Ethical questions and issues arise at both the level of setting laws and policies and the level of deciding what to do where, those are indeterminate. For example: Which law or policy regarding justifiable breaches of confidentiality would best protect both the public health and the rights of persons with communicable diseases? And, if the law or policy permits, but does not require, a breach of confidentiality by mandating the disclosure of information to third parties such as sexual partners under certain conditions, what is the ethically justifiable course of action for public health officials? Which ethical and other factors are relevant to these decisions? On what ethical grounds can a public health official justify their decisions?